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Relationship and difference between RFID and NFC


   和NFC之间到底有什么关系? What is the relationship between RFID and NFC? This is a seemingly simple problem, but it is actually very confusing. Even after working in this industry for many years, sometimes it may not be possible to clearly express the relationship and difference between the two. To understand this problem, let's start with a simple illustration.
In-depth analysis of the relationship between RFID and NFC technologies
     
It can be clearly seen from the above figure that there is a great difference between the two, while there is a certain intersection.
origin
The earliest prototype of RFID can be traced back to World War II. At that time, in order to effectively identify enemy and enemy aircraft, the Allied radar added a radio transmitter to the radar. After the radar detected the aircraft, it sent a specific radio wave to the aircraft. The aircraft will return a piece of radio waves. After receiving the radar, it can be judged as its own aircraft. If there is no response, it will be considered as an enemy aircraft. After decades of development, many frequency bands have been extended according to differences in use. The scope of action also extends from the earliest single object recognition to scenarios such as near field payment.
NFC started much later than RFID, probably around 2003. The three IT giants, PHLIPS, SONY, NOKIA, gathered together to unify and add some unique things on the basis of the original RFID. Launched NFC technology .
RFID classification
There are many types of RFID classification, such as active or passive, and energy transmission. This article is only to clarify the relationship between RFID and NFC, so only the frequency band is discussed here.
According to different fields of application, RFID is divided into many frequency bands, from low to high:
1.Low frequency
125K, 134K
2.High frequency
13.56M
3.UHF
900M
4.Microwave
2.4G, 5.8G
Of course, this is not all the frequencies, just the few that we are most exposed to daily. It should be noted that 900M and 13.56M, these two frequencies have the widest application range. Our commonly used bus recharge cards, meal cards, second-generation ID cards, and PBOC bank cards belong to this frequency band, and product labels often used for inventory management The majority is 900M.
Unlike 13.56M, 900M is a general reference, not an exact frequency. Every country is different. The frequency band in our country is a little above and below 900M, so 900M is generally used as a synonym.
The relationship between RFID and NFC
As can be seen from the above figure, the biggest common point is that they all use 13.56M, and 13.56M is the RFID frequency band we have come into contact with most. This is why many people do not understand the difference between RFID and NFC. In fact, the range of RFID is much wider than NFC. In addition to 13.56M, there are many other frequency bands, while NFC has only 13.56. The original intention of NFC was to design near-field payments and loosely authenticated small data exchanges. NFC chose 13.56M as the foundation and added a point-to-point communication. Traditional RFID can only interact with one READER and one TAG at the same time. Data can be transferred between two readers.
At the same time, NFC is not compatible with all 13.56MRFID, but it is compatible with both 14443TYPEA and 15693 protocols. It does not support 14443TYPEB like our ID card.



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